Rigaud and Moreau [8] also demonstrated that after multiple matin

Rigaud and Moreau [8] also demonstrated that after multiple mating, sperm depletion in males affects fertility only in infected females. In addition, a reduced fertility and survival is recorded in Wolbachia-infected females [6, 9, 10]. However, these females had Ku0059436 a higher reproductive investment (they produce more offspring and more eggs per clutch) so ultimately the reproductive success is similar between infected and non-infected females [6]. More recently, deleterious

effects have been demonstrated on immunocompetence of infected females [10, 11]. Indeed, these females have a lower hemocyte density, a decrease in PO activity, and a more severe hemolymph septicemia that could result in a reduced life span in A. vulgare [10, 11]. This latter effect could impact host fitness including lower or higher resistance to intruders as it has been shown in many insect species [12]. For example, it has been demonstrated that Wolbachia suppress the host defence of Drosophila

simulans against parasitoids [13]. Conversely, Wolbachia-induced stimulation of the host’s innate immune system has been suggested as a mechanism conferring resistance to pathogens. In D. melanogaster and D. simulans, Wolbachia protect their hosts against RNA viral infection [14–16]. This has also been demonstrated in Aedes aegypti where the injection of the life-shortening wMelPop Wolbachia strain provides resistance against Fedratinib molecular weight the Dengue and the Chikungunya viruses as well as against Plasmodium gallinaceum and Brugia pahangi [12, 17–21]. In parallel, Wolbachia were shown to induce immune gene expression in different biological systems. For example, a Wolbachia-infected

cell line displayed an overexpression of antioxidant proteins that are key components of Ae. albopictus immune response [22, 23]. Similarly, host immune genes are up-regulated in Ae. aegypti [17] and Anopheles gambiae [18] when infected by wMelPop. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in isometheptene Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, different Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) libraries [normalized, non-normalized, and Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) libraries] were constructed in order to generate a large transcriptomics data set. To identify genes involved in Wolbachia-host association and in host immune response, EST and SSH libraries were prepared using RNA from ovaries (i.e., the tissue involved in vertical transmission) and from A. vulgare females artificially challenged by Salmonella typhimurium. Host gene expression in Wolbachia-infected individuals was then compared to uninfected individuals by in silico and in vitro subtractions. This analysis revealed a set of HDAC cancer potentially modulated immune genes. Expression of immune genes were investigated to examine whether the decrease of immunocompetence in the Wolbachia-infected A.

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