So we can collect two kinds of the relative uniform particles In

So we can collect two kinds of the relative uniform particles. In our experiments, we use the RNase [email protected] PD173074 in vivo clusters that are retained in the dialysis membrane except for special description. As shown in Figure 1e, the XRD pattern of the RNase [email protected] clusters has two https://www.selleckchem.com/products/dorsomorphin-2hcl.html distinctly sharp peaks at 2θ of approximately 27° (d = 0.33 nm) and approximately 39° (d = 0.23 nm) which can be attributed to (002) and (100) facets of graphite [30]. Notably,

there is a broad peak at 2θ of around 20° (d = 0.42 nm) which is probably the reflection of the (002) facet of graphite; however, the larger interlayer spacing of 0.42 nm compared to that of bulk graphite which is about 0.33 nm might have resulted from the poor crystallization [31]. The UV–Vis absorption spectra (Figure 2a, black line) of the RNase [email protected] feature a typical absorbance of C-dots which shows strong optical absorption in the UV region with a tail extending out into the visible range [8]. On the other hand, the absorbance peak of the pure RNase A is at approximately 275 nm as shown in Figure 2a (red line). Compared with UV–Vis absorbance peaks of C-dots (prepared by microwave synthesis using citric acid as a carbon precursor without RNase this website A) and the pure RNase A, there are clearly differences in UV–Vis absorption spectra. First, the absorbance peak of the C-dots

(Additional file 1: Figure S2a) is at approximately 240 nm which has resulted from π-π* transition [32], while in the absorbance spectrum of RNase [email protected] (Figure 2a, black line), the peak shifts to approximately 260 nm which may be caused by the increasing size of RNase [email protected] as a cluster and the synergy of RNase A and

C-dots. In the TEM image of C-dots, it has shown clearly that the RNase [email protected] are actually clusters with several C-dots capped by RNase A films. The RNase A itself did not distinctly change its UV–Vis absorption Aurora Kinase character before and after microwave treatment for 4 min (see Additional file 1: Figure S1). Second, there is a noticeable absorbance increase of RNase [email protected] from 300 to 450 nm compared to that of C-dots which is very likely to benefit from the surface passivation by RNase A [24]. Figure 2 UV–Vis absorption and PL spectra and fluorescence decay profile of RNase [email protected] (a) UV–Vis absorption of the as-prepared RNase [email protected] (black line) and RNase A treated by microwave for 4 min (red line). (b) PL spectra of the as-prepared RNase [email protected] at excitation from 300 to 500 nm in 20-nm increment. Inset: image of the as-prepared RNase [email protected] dispersion under visible light (left) and UV light (right). (c) Fluorescence decay profile (λ ex = 380 nm, λ em = 450 nm) of the as-prepared RNase [email protected] (d) The effect of the solution pH value over the fluorescence (λ ex = 360 nm) of the as-prepared RNase [email protected] Dramatic changes have been reflected in their PL properties.

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