The cloned sequence corresponded to fragments of the genes lmo2095 and lmo2096, both of which are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. A recent study examining the transcription of the entire genome of L. monocytogenes has shown that the identified promoter drives the transcription of a long antisense RNA with no known physiological role . Analysis of the chromosomal DNA fragments
trapped in the other strains permitted the identification of ten penicillin G-inducible genes. Increased expression of the identified genes in the presence of penicillin G was further confirmed by transcriptional analysis. The transcription of seven of the identified genes, namely lmo1065, lmo1211, lmo1622, leuS, lmo1941, phoP and axyR, appeared to be upregulated in response to Momelotinib cost this stress in a growth phase-independent manner, since they were initially identified in the stationary phase of growth and subsequently their elevated expression
was also observed in exponentially growing cells. On the basis of the initial promoter trap system results it was difficult to determine whether the genes fri, lmo0944 and lmo0945, or only one or two of them, show increased expression under penicillin G pressure in the stationary phase of growth. However all three of these genes were definitely transcriptionally upregulated in response to this stress in the exponential phase of growth. The functions of the proteins encoded by six of the identified genes are unknown, but four have established
functions. One of them, fri, encodes a ferritin-like protein which belongs to the Dps family. Previously, this listerial ferritin was shown to contribute to virulence ML323 manufacturer and to play a role in protection against multiple stresses [18, 20]. The expression of the fri gene is known to be upregulated in a σB-dependent manner . Interestingly, SigB was found to determine the tolerance of L. monocytogenes to cell envelope-acting antimicrobial agents , and in a Δfri mutant strain, Quisinostat overexpression of an anti-sigma B factor, RsbW, was observed , which strongly suggests possible modulation of SigB activity selleck chemicals llc by ferritin. Gene phoP, a member of the phosphate starvation two-component regulatory system PhoP-PhoR is involved in the regulation of alkaline phosphatase genes in response to environmental signals. In B. subtilis, it has been shown that the PhoP-PhoR system is also involved in controlling the biosynthesis of teichoic acid, a key component of the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria . More recently, it was found that a lack of phoR in L. monocytogenes results in altered tolerance to ethanol stress. This observation suggests that the listerial PhoP-PhoR system is involved in regulating the composition of the cell wall . Gene axyR encodes a putative bimodular protein with an N-terminal region containing a conserved HTH domain required for transcriptional regulation by AraC/XylS regulators at targeted promoters .