The efficient separation and transfer of election-hole pairs migh

The efficient separation and HDAC activity assay transfer of election-hole pairs might also be associated with the interaction of V4+ and V5+. The V5+ species reacted with the electrons to yield V4+ species,

which on surface oxygen molecules generated the oxidant superoxide radical ion O2 −. O2 − reacted with H+ to produce hydroxyl radical and H+ and CO2 trapped electrons to produce •H and •CO2 −, which further reacted with holes to yield the final product, methane [34]. Superabundant V and N could result in a decrease of photoreduction activity for increasing recombination centers of electrons and holes. Conclusions V-N co-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated by a simple two-step method. V and N co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts exhibit fine this website tubular structures after hydrothermal click here co-doping process. XPS data reveal that N is found in the forms of Ti-N-O and V incorporates into the TiO2 lattice in V-N co-doped TNAs. V and N co-doping result in remarkably enhanced activity for CO2 photoreduction to CH4 due to the effective separation of electron-hole pairs. Meanwhile, the unique structure of co-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays promoted the electron transfer and the substance diffusion. Acknowledgements The authors thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no.21203054) and Program for Changjiang

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