The larger particles, which have a nominal stress response that approaches that of the continuum model, show decreasing levels of size effect. Figure 6 Particle loading behaviors. (a) Nominal stress vs nominal strain for five different particle GS-4997 manufacturer diameters and for the continuum model. (b) Nominal stress vs particle
diameter for different GSK2399872A molecular weight compressive strain levels. Figure 6b displays the particle nominal stresses as a function of particle diameter for different compressive strain levels. For compressive strains of 20%, a mild size effect is observed. At this strain, the nominal stress for the smallest particle is about 1.5 times that of the largest particle. When the compressive strain is increased to 30%, which is common for the micron-sized polymer particles used in ACAs, the nominal stress for the D 5 particle is approximately three times that of D 40 particle. The data in the Figure 6b also indicates that the particle nominal stresses for large particles approach that of the continuum elastic solution. The size effect data shown in Figures 6 are consistent with the size effect observed experimentally. He et al.  carried out experiments on micron-sized polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) particles.
A nanoindentation-based flat punch method was used to determine the stress-strain behavior of particles in compression. The particle size varied from 2.6 to 25 μm. A strong size effect Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor on the compressive stress strain curve was observed. As the particle
size decreases, the mechanical response becomes stiffer. Simulated compression unloading A series of compression unloading simulations were performed on the same MD models described in ‘Simulated compression loading’ section. The simulated unloadings followed compressive loading strains of 38%. The load-strain diagrams of these simulations are shown in Figure 7. The elastic modulus was determined from the compression unloading curves using [22, 26] (6) where r c is the contact radius, P s is the applied load during Fludarabine chemical structure unloading, and δ is the displacement during unloading. The contact radius was determined from the MD simulations using a method previously developed . The differential term in Equation (6) was determined by fitting the initial unloading P s-δ response with the power function (7) where A, δ f, and m are fitting parameters. The calculated elastic moduli are plotted in Figure 8 over the range of diameters of the particles. In general, the data in Figure 8 shows a strong dependence of elastic properties on the particle size, with smaller particles having a stiffer response. This trend is in agreement with the trends observed in Figures 6, which is a supporting evidence for the presence of a significant size effect in polymer particles. Figure 7 Compressive unloading curves for the five spherical polymer particles. Figure 8 Compressive unloading modulus for each of the five polymer particles.