The surface water flow through the Sicily Channel is estimated to be approximately 1.4 times the surface water flow through the Gibraltar Strait because: (1) the net evaporation INCB024360 solubility dmso over the EMB is about three times than the net evaporation over the WMB, (2) deep water convection is more significant in the EMB than the WMB, so the amount of lower-water outflow through the Sicily Channel is more significant than through the Gibraltar Strait. Depending on the two previous
aspects, the amount of inflow water needed to compensate for the loss of water due to net evaporation and outflow is much higher through the Sicily Channel than the Gibraltar Strait. The Sicily Strait is 11 times wider than the Gibraltar Strait, which can explain why the surface flow through
the Sicily Channel is higher than that through the Gibraltar Strait. The calculated SST over the 1958–2010 period followed the reanalysed data with no biases over either studied sub-basin. The surface water www.selleckchem.com/products/bmn-673.html of the EMB was approximately 1.6°C warmer than that of the WMB in the studied period. The Mediterranean Sea surface water displayed a significant warming trend, most pronounced in the 1985–2010 period and over the EMB (Table 5). The modelled sea surface salinity in the 1958–2010 period followed the reanalysed data with a bias of 0.09 and 0.11 g kg−1 for the WMB and EMB, respectively. The surface water of the EMB was approximately 0.87 g kg−1 more saline than that of the WMB. The Mediterranean Sea surface water displayed an insignificant salinity trend (Table 5). In the EMB, this can be explained by a balance between two effects: significant warming (implying increasing salinity) and decreasing freshwater input (implying decreasing salinity). The annual temperature and salinity cycles in the surface and deep layers were realistically simulated using PROBE-MED version 2.0. The calculated evaporation rate and heat balance components agreed well with
and were strongly correlated with the reanalysed data. This may indicate that the air–sea interaction and turbulent mixing are modelled satisfactorily. Table Amine dehydrogenase 5 shows the statistical analysis of net precipitation rates. Calculated net precipitation rates display a positive (negative) trend over the WMB (EMB), most markedly in the 1958–1984 (1985–2010) period. Moreover, the annual average net precipitation rates were −0.88 ± 0.95 and −1.52 ± 1.28 mm day−1 for the WMB and EMB, respectively. This may explain the much more saline surface water in the EMB than the WMB. Different estimation methods are available for calculating net precipitation rates. ERA-Interim reanalysed data indicate that the net precipitation rates over the 1985–2010 period, calculated as long-term means, were −1.4 mm day−1 (trend 0.099 mm day−1 yr−1) and −2.1 mm day−1 (trend −0.139 mm day−1 yr−1) for the WMB and EMB, respectively. Romanou et al.