The underlying mechanisms of CNT toxicity include oxidative stress, production of cytokines, chemokines and inflammatory
responses, malignant transformation, DNA damage and mutation (errors in chromosome number as well as disruption of the mitotic spindle), the formation of granulomas, and interstitial fibrosis [156, 157]. In view of carcinogenicity of CNTs, SWCNTs were directly instilled into the lungs of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical animals, it was found that exposure to SWCNTs at a high concentration leads to the development of granulomas in rodents and a concentration of 0.5mg/m3 and 2.5mg/m3 for Dactolisib solubility dmso MWCNTs induces microgranulomas with the inflammation in the alveoli [158–160]. Similarly, in a study by Kanno et al., demonstrated the carcinogenic potential of MWCNT to induce multiple mesothelioma with severe peritoneal adhesion when administered intraperitoneally to p53 heterozygous mice. This Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical may be due to its structural similarities (size/shape) to asbestos as well as persistency in the
organism, while in an another study Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reported by Takanashi et al., and it was stated that subcutaneously implanting the MWCNTs in to the rasH2 mice did not develop neoplasm [161–163]. In view to the inflammatory responses with CNTs, Monteiro-Riviere et al. exposed human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) to MWCNTs and found that MWCNT induces the release of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 from HEK which indicates the irritation response on target epithelial cells . Similarly, upon subcutaneously administering
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical MWCNT at 0.1mg/kg and 1mg/kg showed acute inflammation characterized by vasodilatation, edema formation, neutrophil infiltrate, tissue damage and also Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical elicited hyperalgesic response (as seen by the increase paw withdrawal of animal) . In a study, Pons et al. investigated the immunomodulatory activity of MWCNTs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and mite-allergic subjects. It was observed that MWCNTs may either promote or suppress immune responses with the type of Toll-like receptor agonist the cells are stimulated with. Basal secretion of all TNF-α, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12/23p40, Linifanib (ABT-869) or IFN-γ was not altered by MWCNTs in PBMCs derived from both healthy donors and allergic subjects but significantly increased in the release of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12/23p40 was observed in PBMCs stimulating the Toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4) agonist . Among the many toxicity pathways, interference with cytoskeleton and fibrous mechanisms, cell signalling, and membrane perturbations are some of the effects resulting from exposure to CNTs .