This calls into question the need for intensive insulin therapy in these patients.”
“ELY, B. R., S. N. CHEUVRONT, R. W. KENEFICK, and M. N. SAWKA. Limitations of Salivary Osmolality
as a Marker of Hydration Status. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 1080-1084, 2011. Salivary osmolality (S(osm)) is a potentially useful hydration marker but PLX4032 solubility dmso may be confounded by oral artifacts. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of Sosm for detecting hypohydration and evaluate the effect of a simple mouth rinse. Methods: Eight healthy volunteers (six males and two females; age = 22 +/- 7 yr, body mass = 83.7 +/- 14.9 kg, height = 176.9 +/- 9.2 cm) were measured for nude body mass (BM), plasma osmolality (P(osm)), and S(osm) when euhydrated (EUH) and again when hypohydrated (HYP) by exercise-heat exposure with fluid restriction. After the initial saliva sample during HYP, a 10-s mouth rinse with 50 mL of water was provided, and saliva samples were obtained 1 min (RIN01), 15 min (RIN15), and 30 min (RIN30) after rinse. The ability of S(osm) to detect HYP was compared with P(osm). Results: Volunteers were hypohydrated by -4.0% +/- 1.2% of BM (range = -2.2% to -5.3%). S(osm) was elevated above EUH after hypohydration (EUH 58 +/-
8 mmol.kg(-1) vs HYP 96 +/- 28 mmol.kg(-1), P < 0.05). S(osm) baseline and change values displayed more variability than P(osm) based on C188-9 in vivo ANOVA and regression analyses. After the oral rinse, saliva decreased in concentration (RIN01 = 61 +/- 17 mmol.kg(-1), P < 0.05) but returned to prerinse values within 15 min (RIN15 = 101 +/- 25 mmol.kg(-1)) and remained similar 30 min after (RIN30 = 103 +/- 33 mmol.kg(-1)). Conclusions: S(osm) was remarkably altered 1 min after a brief water mouth rinse. Fifteen minutes proved an adequate recovery time, indicating that the timing of oral artifacts and saliva sample collection is critical when considering Sosm for hydration assessment. Given the
inherent variability and profound effect of oral intake, use of S(osm) as a marker of hydration status is dubious.”
“Background: To evaluate the prevalence and quantity of Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific learn more antigen in the three layers (intima, media, and adventitia) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), so as to further investigate the pathogenesis of AAAs.\n\nMethods: Aortic walls were collected from 20 patients with AAA and 11 healthy organ donors. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the C pneumoniae-specific antigen, and image analysis system was used to quantify and locate it.\n\nResults: The positive rate of C pneumoniae-specific antigen was higher in the AAA group than in the control group (100% vs. 54.54%, p = 0.003), positive intensity decreased from the tunica intima to the adventitia in the AAA group (16.32% +/- 2.13%, 14.84% +/- 1.80%, and 14.25% +/- 1.67%, respectively, p = 0.003). In the control group, positive cells were mainly found in focal lesion areas.