Thus, the association of importin-alpha-16 and INM-directed proteins appears to remain at least through protein translocation across the pore membrane to the INM. Overall, the data suggest that multiple levels of regulation facilitate INM-directed protein trafficking, and that proteins participating in this sorting pathway have a dynamic relationship with each other and the membrane of the ER.”
“We combined retrograde tracing with immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase to identify the source of cholinergic input to the inferior colliculus
(IC) in guinea p gs. Injection of a retrograde tracer into one IC labeled cells in many brainstem nuclei. Retrogradely-labeled cells that were also immunoreactive for choline acetyltransferase were identified Epigenetics inhibitor in two nuclei in the midbrain tegmentum: the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and the
laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT). More PPT and LDT cells project ipsilaterally than contralaterally to the IC and, on both sides, there are more projecting cells in the PPT than in the LDT. Double-labeled Dinaciclib datasheet cells were not found in any other brainstem nucleus. A common feature of cholinergic cells in PPT and LDT is collateral projections to multiple targets. We placed different retrograde tracers into each IC to identify cells in PPT and LDT that project to both ICs. In both PPT and LDT, a substantial proportion (up to 57%) of the immunoreactive cells that contained tracer from the contralateral IC also contained tracer from the ipsilateral IC. We conclude buy BAY 1895344 that acetylcholine in the IC originates from the midbrain tegmental cholinergic nuclei: PPT and LDT. These nuclei are known
to participate in arousal, the sleep/wake cycle and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. It is likely that the cholinergic input to the IC is directly associated with these functions. (C) 2009 IERO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The glycine-alanine repeat (GAr) sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA-1 prevents presentation of antigenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. This has been attributed to its capacity to suppress mRNA translation in cis. However, the underlying mechanism of this function remains largely unknown. Here, we have further investigated the effect of the GAr as a regulator of mRNA translation. Introduction of silent mutations in each codon of a 30-amino-acid GAr sequence does not significantly affect the translation-inhibitory capacity, whereas minimal alterations in the amino acid composition have strong effects, which underscores the observation that the amino acid sequence and not the mRNA sequence mediates GAr-dependent translation suppression.