Vegetables and fruits were often given as the first complementary

Vegetables and fruits were often given as the first complementary foods, and the average age of children at the time of the introduction of every new food was generally consistent with the recommendations. The overall average provision with energy (1165.67 [29.67–4951.33] kcal/day), protein (40.53 [0.63–230.37] g/day) and carbohydrates (153.63 [3.53–708.7] g/day) exceeded the corresponding Selleck CAL 101 modern standards, although significant individual variations were observed, especially in terms of energy and protein consumption.

The excess of proteins was especially significant (Fig. 2). However, the average level of consumption was lower than the national requirements (53 g/day). Thirty-six percentage of children consumed protein at the level of 25–40 g/day, and 31% – 40–53 g/day (Fig. 3). Only fat consumption (33.61 [15.64–68.62]%

of the total calories intake) was appropriate to children’s needs providing about 33% of daily energy (Fig. 2). The average intake of saturated fat (3.65 [0–43.64]%) and cholesterol (106.4 [2.2–637.8] mg) was also appropriate. However, the average provision with polyunsaturated fats was insufficient (3.59 [0.087–19.34]%). Compared to infants, children aged of 13–36 months consumed more energy, protein and carbohydrates but less saturated, polyunsaturated fat, and cholesterol (Tab. II). At the same time the features of provision with energy and basic nutrients described previously became more prominent with increasing age. Note: Dashed lines indicate the desired level of energy and nutrients consumption according to the recommendations of the WHO [22], [23], [24] and [25], the European Union [26], [27] and [28] and the United States [29] (2010–2012). The fine dotted lines represent the level corresponding to the national guidelines (1999) [30]. The national regulation regarding Cytidine deaminase desired percentage of fat intake is absent. According to calculations, the diet

of the majority of children involved in the study did not comply with the recommended intake of zinc (91%), iron (68%), calcium (61%), iodine (49%), vitamins A (99%), D (97%), B6 (89%), B12 (71%), E (70%) and B1 (61%) (Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6). The exact content of the basic minerals and vitamins in the daily diet depending on the age of the children is presented in Table III. Frequent intake of sweets and chocolates appeared to be one of the most inadequate in terms of nutrition quality and was associated with diet deficiency in zinc (R = 0.14; p < 0.05), calcium (R = 0.12; p < 0.05), vitamins E (R = 0.23; p < 0.05), D (R = 0.12; p < 0.05), C (R = 0.11; p < 0.05), B6 (R = 0.16; p < 0.05), and B12 (R = 0.22; p < 0.05). Deficiencies of zinc (R = 0.12; p < 0.05), calcium (R = 0.16; p < 0.05), vitamins E (R = 0.19; p < 0.05), D (R = 0.14; p < 0.05), B1 (R = 0.11; p < 0.05) and B6 (R = 0.22; p < 0.05) were associated with increased meat intake.

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