Due to small number of subjects in each ABO blood group, no statistical methods were used to define the number of individuals in each of the study groups. Table 1 Demographics of the study population Blood group A B AB O Female 17 (85%) 11 (92%) 12 (92%) 17 (89%) Male 3 (15%) 1 (8%) 1 (8%) 2 (11%) Total* 20 12 13 19 Rh+ 19 (95%) 10 (83%) 12 (92%) 19 (100%) Rh- 1 (5%) 2 (17%) 1 (8%) 0 Average age** 44 (33–58) 43
(31–57) 48 (39–58) 46 (31–61) 79 persons were recruited to the study. Exclusion criteria in the recruitment were: diagnosed gastrointestinal disorders, antibiotic treatment in past two months, pregnancy, problems in blood coagulation, vegetarian diet and age below 18 or over 61. In addition, non-secretor persons (15) were excluded, thus the final study pool was 64 persons. Average age is presented together with the age range of each ABO blood group. Rh +/− states the presence/absence
Avapritinib clinical trial of the Rhesus-factor in blood. *No statistical difference (P > 0.95) was detected in participant numbers between blood groups. ** No statistical difference (P > 0.45) was detected in participant age distribution between blood groups. The %G + C profiling that was performed to 46 fecal samples high enough genomic-DNA yield (>20 μg), revealed ABO blood group related differences in the overall faecal microbiota profiles (Figure1). The longitudinal shifts in the profile peaks Ketotifen suggested large differences in the microbiota composition, particularly evident in the mid-%G + C area (35–45; representing the majority of faecal microbes) and PI3K Inhibitor Library cell line the high %G + C area (55–59; the area dominated by Actinobacteria). In the overall microbiota profiles from blood group A individuals, a shift towards higher %G + C microbes was observed, and the profiles from blood group B individuals showed the highest microbial density in the mid-%G + C area. In the high %G + C range, the highest peak was observed in the
blood Selleckchem 4EGI-1 groups O and AB. The observed differences in the %G + C profiles were found to be statistically significant (Figure 2). The short chain fatty acid and lactic acid analysis or total bacterial numbers determined by flow cytometry did not differ between the ABO blood groups (data not shown). Figure 1 %G + C-profile-data grouped by ABO blood groups. Averaged %G + C-profiles grouped by ABO blood groups revealing a difference in the overall microbial profile between ABO blood groups. Each line represents the average of %G + C-data points of individuals with different ABO blood groups. Line colours for each ABO group are as follows: A = red, B = blue, AB = green and O = black. Table 2 Statistical significances between 5%G + C-fractionated samples grouped and averaged by ABO blood group 5% increment A vs.