Each group was further randomized according to duration of antibi

Each group was further randomized according to duration of antibiotic maintenance (a: single dose prophylaxis, b: additional dose 12 hours after prophylaxis, c: beginning with prophylactic dose until the nephrostomy tube removal). Seven patients in whom purulent urine was obtained through the access needle were excluded from

the study. Groups were compared in terms of stone-and operation-related factors as well as preoperative urine cultures, access cultures, stone cultures, postoperative urine cultures, and presence of SIRS.

Results: A total of 191 patients (group 1: 95, group 2: 96) were evaluated. Mean patient age, body mass index, stone size, and perioperative outcomes were similar. Positive culture rates did not differ between groups. SIRS was observed in 13 (43.3%) patients in group 1 and 17 patients (56.7%) in group 2 (P = 0.44). The relation Quisinostat price between duration of antibiotic maintenance and SIRS development was not different in each group

(P = 0.95 for group 1, P: 0.39 for group 2). Urosepsis was observed SN-38 DNA Damage inhibitor in two patients, and one patient died because of septic shock.

Conclusions: Sulbactam-ampicillin and cefuroxime antibiotics can be used safely for prophylaxis of PCNL. Single dose administration is sufficient.”
“Introduction: Evidence-based medicine guides clinical practice. Currently, the evidence base on adenotonsillectomy is under scrutiny to establish clinical guidelines. It is therefore important that reports of clinical trials are of high quality. Guidance on reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are available in the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement first published in 1996 and revised in 2001 and 2010.

Methods: A review of randomised

controlled trials on adenotonsillectomy published after 2001 was undertaken. Each report was systematically assessed using the checklist of items from the CONSORT statement.

Results: Twenty-five trials were identified. All trials, except one, were identified as a randomised controlled trial by title or abstract. Entinostat ic50 Twenty percent of trials reported a sample size calculation. A third of trials reported their method of generating a random allocation sequence. Similarly, a third stated the method of implementing the random allocation. A fifth of trials reported a clear flow of trial participants, with only a single trial reporting this with the aid of a diagram.

Conclusion: This review shows the quality of reporting needs to be improved. Critical appraisal of poorly reported trials may result in erroneous conclusions, even though these trials may have been carried out with rigorous adherence to a protocol of high standard. Authors of clinical trial reports should be encouraged to consult the CONSORT statement. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The genetic diversity of 31 identified strains of Lactococcus lactis ssp.

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