Fluorescence assays were performed in white microtiter plates. Five to 50 μl of supernatant were adjusted to 200 μl/well with HE buffer. After adding 20 μl of 100 μM DAPI (2-(4-Amidinophenyl)- 6-indolecarbamidine dihydrochloride; Sigma D9542; dissolved in H2O), the plates were vibrated for 20 min at room temperature. Fluorescence was then measured at 415 nmEX and 540 nmEM. The fluorescence
signal remained stable over at least several hours. Standard curves (0 – 2000 ng/ml, in HE buffer) were constructed using polyphosphate (Aldrich, cat nr. 30,555-3) with an average chain length of 17. Protein expression and purification of recombinant TbrPPX1 To produce a GST-TbrPPX1 or MBP-TbrPPX1 fusion proteins, the Selleck Ruxolitinib previously constructed TOPO-TbrPPX1 plasmid was cleaved with BamHI and NotI, and the resulting fragment inserted into the pGST- or the MBP parallel3 vectors . The final plasmids were JNK-IN-8 datasheet verified by DNA sequencing and transformed in Escherichia Pictilisib in vitro coli BL21(DE3) cells. The cells were grown in Terrific Broth (TB) medium  at 37°C with constant shaking. IPTG was added to a final concentration of 0.4 mM when OD600 reached 0.5. Cells were further grown at 15°C and harvested 18 h after IPTG induction by centrifugation at 4000 rpm for 20 min. The pellets were resuspended in homogenisation
buffer (140 mM NaCl, 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.4) containing the Roche complete® protease inhibitor cocktail, and were lysed with a French Press at 20,000 psi. The cell lysate was centrifuged at 10,000 g for 30 min to remove any insoluble material. The MBP-fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography on an amylose-resin and eluted with 10 mM maltose in 140 mM NaCl, 20 mM
HEPES, pH 7.4. The GST-TbrPPX1 protein was purified using a glutathione sepharose resin (Clontech). The protein was eluted with 10 mM glutathione in 140 mM NaCl, 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.4. Fractions were analyzed on 12% SDS-PAGE gels, followed by silver or Coomassie staining. Positive fractions were pooled and frozen in aliquots at -70°C in elution buffer Idoxuridine supplemented with 10% glycerol and 0.5 mM MgCl2. Enzymatic activity of recombinant TbrPPX1 Polyphosphatase activity was determined in 50 μl reactions containing 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.8, 50 μM EGTA, 1 mM MgCl2 and 20 – 40 nM enzyme. The standard substrate was inorganic pentasodium triphosphate (Sigma, cat nr 72061). Reactions were run at 30°C for 60 s and were stopped by the addition of 100 μl BioMol Green phosphate detection solution (BioMol GmbH, Germany, cat nr AK-111). Absorbance was determined at 620 nm. Every reaction was done in triplicate, plus a control reaction that did not contain enzyme. Values from this control were subtracted as background. cAMP phosphodiesterase activity was determined essentially as described . Briefly, the assay mixture (final volume 100 μl) contained 30 mM TrisHCl, pH 7.4, 5 mM MgCl2, 100 μM EGTA, and 0.5 μM cAMP, including 30,000 cpm3H-cAMP.