Guo et al. reported that Ni-Zn ferrite thin films exhibit much higher natural resonance frequency, thanks to bianisotropy . There is strong surface anisotropy in ferrite nanoparticles (NPs), which has been reported before [14–16]. Owing to this surface anisotropy, ferrite NPs will likely show high resonance frequency. NiFe2O4 is a typical soft magnetic ferrite with high electrical resistivity
, and it is an inverse spinel with metal ions occupying the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The magnetic moments BAY 1895344 clinical trial placed in the tetrahedral site and octahedral site couple in an antiparallel manner by a superexchange interaction which is mediated through adjacent oxygen atoms and forms a collinear ferrimagnetic ordering. Additionally, the magnetic behaviors of nanoscale NiFe2O4 are extremely sensitive to their size . There is already
a significant interest in synthesizing NiFe2O4 NPs for achieving optimal magnetic properties [19–21]. In this work, NiFe2O4 NPs were prepared using the sol–gel method. The morphology, structure, and magnetic characterization of the NiFe2O4 NPs have been systemically investigated. Importantly, an adjustable magnetic resonance has been observed in the GHz range, implying that NiFe2O4 is a candidate for microwave devices in the GHz range. Methods NiFe2O4 NPs were synthesized by the sol–gel method with a postannealing process . All chemical reagents used as starting find more materials are of analytical grade and purchased without any further treatment. In a typical synthesis process, 0.01 M Ni(NO3)4·5H2O, 0.02 M Fe(NO3)3·9H2O,
and 0.03 M citric acid were firstly Olopatadine MM-102 mouse dissolved in 100 ml of deionized water. The molar ratio of metal ions to citric acid was 1. A small amount of ammonia was added to the solution to adjust the pH value at about 7 with continuous stirring. Then, the dissolved solution was stirred for 5 h at 80°C and dried in the oven to form the precursor at 140°C. The precursor was preannealed at 400°C for 2 h and then calcined at different temperatures (700°C, 800°C, 900°C, and 1,000°C) for 2 h in the air, which were denoted as S700, S800, S900, and S1000, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD; X’Pert PRO PHILIPS with Cu Kα radiation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) was employed to study the structure of the samples. The morphologies of the samples were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM; Hitachi S-4800, Tokyo, Japan). The measurements of magnetic properties were made using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM; LakeShore 7304, Columbus, OH, USA). The chemical bonding state and the compositions of the samples were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS; VG Scientific ESCALAB-210 spectrometer, East Grinstead, UK) with monochromatic Mg Kα X-rays (1,253.6 eV). The complex permeability μ of the particles/wax composites were measured on a vector network analyzer (PNA, E8363B, Agilent Technologies, Inc.