J Int Society of Sports Nutr 2011, 8:9 CrossRef 32 Borg

J Int Society of Sports Nutr 2011, 8:9.CrossRef 32. Borg

G: Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. IL: Human Kinetics, Champaign; 1998. 33. Watt KK, Hopkins WG, Snow RJ: Reliability of performance in repeated sprint cycling HIF inhibitor tests. J Sci Med Sport 2002, 5:354–361.PubMedCrossRef 34. Rodriguez NR, Dimarco NM, Langley S: Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. J Am Diet Assoc 2009, 109:509–527.PubMedCrossRef 35. Frank GK, Oberndorfer TA, Simmons AN, Paulus MP, Fudge JL, Yang TT, Kaye WH: Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener. NeuroImage 2008, 39:1559–1569.PubMedCrossRef 36. Clark VR, Hopkins WG, Hawley JA, Burke LM: C646 chemical structure Placebo effect of carbohydrate feedings during a 40-km cycling time trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000, 32:1642–1647.PubMed 37. O’Neal EK, Wingo JE, Richardson MT, Leeper JD, Neggers YH, Bishop PA: Half-Marathon and Full-Marathon Runners’ Hydration Practices and Perceptions. J Athl Train 2011, 46:581–591.PubMed Competing interests Equipment and beverages used in this investigation were prepared and provided by The Coca-Cola Co. Financial compensation was also awarded to the subjects for their participation and investigators EO and PB for designing, directing,

collecting data and writing this manuscript. SP is employed by The Coca-Cola Co. Authors’ contributions EKO developed the study design, collected data, conducted statistical analysis, and drafted and submitted the manuscript. PAB, SPP, JEW, and MTR assisted in the study design, interpretation of data, and critically reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Flavonoids are a large family of phenolic

compounds or polyphenols with wide therapeutic applications [1]. Quercetin is one of the most widely spread naturally occurring flavonoids, found in onions, garlic, cabbage, leek, broccoli, apples, blueberries, tea and red wine [2]. It is known that quercetin may exhibit anti-oxidant properties due to its chemical structure, particularly the presence and location of the hydroxyl (-OH) substitutions [3]. Despite the fact that after long-term intake Methocarbamol there is a wide distribution of quercetin (including its metabolites) in all tissues [4], toxic effects have not been reported until the dose reached 157 mg per kg/d [5]. Quercetin might improve endurance performance since it is known that some polyphenols like quercetin [6] and resveratrol [7] improve aerobic capacity of skeletal muscle by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. A psychostimulant effect of quercetin has also been reported in vitro [8] in a manner similar to that of caffeine [9], but this effect was not found in human subjects [10].

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