The randomization code is then broken, the correct interpretation

The randomization code is then broken, the correct interpretation chosen, and the manuscript finalized. Review of the document by an external authority before finalization can provide another safeguard against interpretation bias. Results: We found the blinded preparation of a summary of data interpretation described in this article practical, efficient, and useful. Conclusions: Blinded data interpretation may decrease the frequency S63845 datasheet of misleading data interpretation. Widespread adoption of blinded data interpretation would be greatly facilitated were it added to the minimum set of recommendations outlining proper

conduct of randomized controlled trials (eg, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement). (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of low-dose whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with tumor bed boost after methotrexate-based

chemotherapy in the management of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 64 patients with pathologically proven PCNSL between 2000 and 2011. Methotrexate-based chemotherapy with a median of five cycles was followed by radiotherapy to the whole brain and to the initial tumor bed. The median dose to the whole brain and to the tumor bed was 27 Gy (range, 18 to 36 Gy) and 50.4 Gy (range, 45 to 54 Gy), respectively. Results With a median follow-up period of 27 months, 55 patients (85.9%) achieved find more complete response (CR). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 52.6% and 39.3%, respectively. In univariate analysis, factors associated with OS were age, performance status, involvement of deep structure, and CR to sequential chemoradiotherapy (CRT). These variables remained as significant factors for OS in multivariate analysis.

CR to sequential CRT was the only positive factor associated with PFS (p=0.009). Neurologic toxicity was more common in elderly patients older than 60 years (p=0.025). Conclusion Low-dose WBRT with tumor bed boost after methotrexate-based chemotherapy might be an effective method for management of PCNSL.”
“1. Why animals mate multiple times, learn more owing to the lack of immediate fitness benefits, presents an intriguing problem for evolutionary biologists. Yet, the profusion of this behaviour suggests it must be maintained by natural selection via increased performance. 2. The possible benefits of multiple mating using the leaf beetles Ophraella communaLeSage, the biological control agent of the invasive common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifoliaL., were studied and the fitness consequences of single, twice, three, four, and unrestricted mating events were assessed. 3. Overall, it was observed that the number of copulation events was positively associated with fitness parameters of the insects.

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