They are responsible for the enhanced PL intensity of RNase [email protected]

They are responsible for the enhanced PL intensity of RNase [email protected] [33]. Figure 3 XPS and FTIR spectra and zeta potential. (a) XPS C 1 s spectrum. (b) XPS O 1 s spectrum. (c) XPS N 1 s of RNase [email protected] (d) FTIR spectra of RNase [email protected] (e) Zeta potential of RNase [email protected] The average zeta potential of C-dots (Figure 3e) is 0.02 mV, slightly beyond zero. Considering the fact that cells are with positive charges, a zeta potential of no less than zero is definitely favorable in cell labeling and imaging. (The

influence of BAY 80-6946 mw microwave condition on PL of carbon dots was also investigated, as shown in Additional file 1: Figure S5). Effects of pH on PL properties of RNase [email protected] Although the mechanism of PL properties of C-dots is still unclear and debatable, there is solid evidence of lower quantum efficiency of C-dots that is caused by the fast recombination of excitations located at surface energy traps [8]. BAY 11-7082 Therefore, after modifying the surface of C-dots using different OTX015 supplier surface passivation reagents, the PL properties of the C-dots

can be significantly improved [7, 8, 34]. In this work, we firstly introduce the bioactive enzyme RNase A to synthesize C-dots by one-step micro-assisted synthesis method. The mechanism of the PL enhancement could be explained by following two reasons: Firstly, we propose that the electron-donating effect which resulted from the abundant amino acid groups on the surface of RNase A, especially those amino acids with benzene rings, might contribute a lot to the much enhanced Farnesyltransferase PL intensity of the C-dots. To test our assumption, we select tryptophan and thenylalanine as replacements of RNase A to synthesize C-dots in the same conditions. As shown in Additional file 1: Figure S5b, both tryptophan and thenylalanine can greatly enhance the PL intensity. Secondly, we think that in the microware heating reaction, RNase A acts as a N doping reagent that causes the PL enhancement of the C-dots. The data of IR and XPS can also support the point. In the biological application, pH is a very important factor that we

firstly take into consideration. Herein, the influence of pH values over the PL of the RNase [email protected] clusters is indicated in Figure 2d. The fact that pH values could affect the PL intensity has been seen in quite a few studies [10, 21, 32, 35]. Generally, PL intensity reaches its maximum at a certain pH values, 4.5 [35] or 7 [21]. At the same time, a slight redshift in the emission peak was identified with the increase of pH value [35]. Interestingly, the pH value played a unique role upon the PL of RNase [email protected] There was a noticeable redshift in the emission peak when the pH went from 2.98 to 11.36. However, the PL intensity decreases continuously as pH values increase. Specifically, the C-dots lost about 25% of its PL intensity when the pH increases from 2.98 to 7.32 and retain only 40% of its intensity when the pH value comes to 11.36.

Radiology 239(2):488–496CrossRefPubMed 13 Bauer JS, Kohlmann S,

Radiology 239(2):488–496CrossRefPubMed 13. Bauer JS, Kohlmann S, Eckstein F, Mueller D, Lochmuller EM, Link TM (2006) Structural analysis of trabecular bone of the proximal femur using multislice computed tomography: a comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry for predicting biomechanical strength in vitro. Calcif Tissue Int 78(2):78–89CrossRefPubMed 14. Link TM, Vieth V, Langenberg R, Meier N, Lotter A, Newitt D, Majumdar S selleck chemicals llc (2003) Structure analysis of high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the proximal femur: in vitro correlation with biomechanical strength and BMD. Calcif Tissue Int 72(2):156–165CrossRefPubMed 15. Wachter NJ, Augat P, Mentzel M, Sarkar MR, Krischak GD,

Kinzl L, Claes LE (2001) Predictive value of bone mineral density and morphology determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography for cancellous TPX-0005 cost bone strength of the proximal femur. Bone 28(1):133–139CrossRefPubMed 16. Boehm HF, Link TM, Monetti R, Kuhn V, Eckstein F, Raeth

C, Reiser M (2006) Analysis of the topological properties of the proximal femur on a regional scale: evaluation of multi-detector CT-scans for the assessment of biomechanical strength using local Minkowski functionals in 3D. Proc SPIE 61446X.1:61446X.8 17. Boehm HF, Link TM, Monetti R, Mueller D, Rummeny EJ, Newitt D, Majumdar S, Raeth C (2004) Application of the Minkowski functionals in 3D to high-resolution MR images of trabecular bone: prediction of the biomechanical strength by nonlinear topological measures. Proc SPIE 5370:172–180CrossRef 18. Boehm HF,

Raeth C, Monetti RA, Mueller D, Newitt D, Majumdar S, Rummeny E, Morfill G, Link TM (2003) Local 3D scaling properties for the analysis of trabecular bone extracted from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of human trabecular bone: comparison with bone mineral density in the prediction of biomechanical strength in vitro. Invest Radiol 38(5):269–selleck kinase inhibitor 280CrossRefPubMed 19. Carballido-Gamio J, Phan C, Link TM, Majumdar S (2006) Characterization of trabecular bone structure from high-resolution magnetic resonance images using fuzzy logic. Magn Reson Imaging 24(8):1023–1029CrossRefPubMed 20. Mueller D, Link RANTES TM, Monetti R, Bauer J, Boehm H, Seifert-Klauss V, Rummeny EJ, Morfill GE, Raeth C (2006) The 3D-based scaling index algorithm: a new structure measure to analyze trabecular bone architecture in high-resolution MR images in vivo. Osteoporos Int 17(10):1483–1493CrossRefPubMed 21. Patel PV, Eckstein F, Carballido-Gamio J, Phan C, Matsuura M, Lochmuller EM, Majumdar S, Link TM (2007) Fuzzy logic structure analysis of trabecular bone of the calcaneus to estimate proximal femur fracture load and discriminate subjects with and without vertebral fractures using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T. Calcif Tissue Int 81(4):294–304CrossRefPubMed 22.

Figure 2b shows a typical EDS spectrum generated using FESEM, whi

Figure 2b shows a typical EDS spectrum generated using FESEM, which demonstrates

that zinc and oxygen were detected elements and minor silicon. The presence of silicon could be explained by soda-lime glass which is composed of about 75% silica (SiO2) plus sodium oxide from soda ash and lime. Figure 2 EDS composition analysis of CIGS thin-film (a) and ZnO nanorods (b). Figure 3a presents the crystal structure and preferential orientation of ZnO nanorods on AZO/glass formed at the pH values of 6.5 and 8, respectively. XRD pattern of the prepared ZnO was recorded using an automated Bruker PF-02341066 manufacturer D8 with CuKα radiation. The XRD MGCD0103 in vitro spectra of ZnO nanorods include a dominant peak at 34.4°, associated with the (002) plane of ZnO crystals, as well as a weak (101) peak. All ZnO arrays

yielded diffraction peaks of pure ZnO crystals with a hexagonal structure, suggesting that the films were oriented along the c-axis perpendicular to the AZO window layer because the (002) reflection was much greater than the usual (101) maximum reflection. To evaluate the performance of the antireflective coating on the non-selenized CIGS solar cell, absolute hemispherical reflectance measurements with an integrating sphere were made over the visible to near-IR spectral range, as shown in Figure 3b showing the average reflectance of a bare CIGS solar cell, which was measured to be 8.6% for the UV-visible wavelength range. Comparatively, the average Pritelivir reflectance of ZnO-covered CIGS solar cells with antireflection coating patterns of flat top and tapered ZnO nanostructures were measured to be 3.2% and 2.1%, respectively. The reflectance spectra of the non-selenized CIGS solar cells with ZnO nanorod antireflective coating were clearly lower than those Metalloexopeptidase of the cells without it over wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The reflectance spectra of the non-selenized CIGS cell

without an antireflective layer exhibited interference fringes. In contrast, the spectra of the ZnO nanorod-coated CIGS cell revealed significantly low reflectance, and the interference fringes were not observed at visible wavelength. The suppression of the optical reflectance of wavelengths from 400 to 1,000 nm was close to constant. It can be attributed to the reduction in reflection and the enhancement of photon absorption by the coating layer of ZnO nanorods. This suppression is caused by the moth-eye effect that originates from a graded refractive index in the textured ZnO nanorod-coated antireflective layer. These results reveal that the non-selenization CIGS cell device with ZnO-nanostructure coatings can absorb more photons and converted them into electrical current, owing to its excellent light-trapping ability [21].

While UreI presents a total of fourteen protonable residues, Yut

While UreI presents a total of fourteen protonable residues, Yut has only three, and UreT possesses seven (data not shown). The higher number of protonable residues of UreT could account for the differences found in acid activation between Yut and UreT. However, the mechanism of urea selectivity is probably the same, as a comparison with the crystal BMS202 purchase structure of the urea transporter of D. vulgaris shows that all the residues that form the pore are conserved (data not shown). The only one minor difference is that in one of the two urea slots present in UreT, one of the phenylalanines forming the slot is changed to leucine (L201F), and the corresponding

leucine in the slot is changed to phenylalanine (F304L) (data not shown). Since urea uptake is not pH regulated in Yersinia spp, the unrestricted

entry of urea would alkalinize the cytoplasm to lethal levels. Yersinia has solved this problem by expressing a urease with www.selleckchem.com/products/empagliflozin-bi10773.html an acidic pH-optimum, that has little or no activity at ~pH 8.0 [5]. Brucella urease has a pH optimum of 7.3, and although its activity is much lower at pH 8.0, it is still significant. In this case, the problem of lethal alkalinization is prevented by the existence of a pH-regulated urea transporter that reduces urea uptake to just the amount that diffuses through the inner membrane. In contrast to the ΔureT mutant, mutants ΔureTp and ΔnikO showed this website around a 40% decrease in urease activity in cell extracts. Both phenotypes were reversed by complementation of the mutant strains with a nikO-containing plasmid or, alternatively, with high concentrations of nickel in the culture MRIP medium suggesting that the amount of active urease in these mutants was limited by nickel availability. Complementation of the urease activity of the ΔureTp mutant with the nikO plasmid was rather surprising if we

consider that the mutant should be defective not only in nikO but also in the other nik genes. Furthermore, the susceptibity to low pH of the ΔureTp mutant was not complemented by the nikO gene in trans, suggesting that other factors may be implicated in the acid resistance phenotype of Brucella. NikO is predicted to be the ATPase component of an ECF-type nickel transporter, and its mutation should abolish most of the activity of the transporter. There is another nickel transport system already described in B. suis, NikABCDE (10). nikA mutants were not affected in urease activity unless a chelating agent was added to the medium. As both the ΔureTp and ΔnikO mutants show lower urease activity than the wild type when grown in standard medium, we concluded that NikKMLQO is the main nickel transport system in Brucella. B. suis nikA mutants have an intact NikKMLQO nickel transporter, whose function can override the nikA mutation. In B. abortus 2308 by contrast, the single nikO mutation produced a significant decrease in urease activity. Sequence analysis reveals that the three B.

b Number of pSfr64a ORFs in each

b Number of pSfr64a ORFs in each category, with highest similarity to ORFs from pRet42d. c Number of pSfr64a ORFs in each category, with highest similarity to ORFs from pRet42a. d Number of pSfr64a ORFs in each category, with highest similarity Palbociclib order to ORFs from the chromosome of NGR234. Among the ORFs selleck compound shared between pSfr64a and pRet42a, the self-transmissible plasmid of CFN42, most are related to conjugative transfer (20 ORFs), only two were ascribed to macromolecular metabolism. Interestingly, both are related to DNA metabolism, one was classified as a putative nuclease, and the other as a probable DNA methylase. In Figure 3, it can be appreciated

that the genomic region shared between pRet42a and pSfr64a is markedly colinear. Colinearity is disrupted by the absence of an homolog to the regulatory gene cinR of pRet42a, and the presence of pSfr64a ORFs 147 and 148, which encode hypothetical proteins. The correspondence between pSfr64a and pRetCFN42 ORFs check details is presented in Additional File 1. Figure 2 shows that the segment of pSfr64a shared with pRet42a has a high GC content, compared to the rest of the plasmid. This feature is also present in the similar pRet42a sequence. Figure 3 Colinearity between pSfr64a and other replicons. Dot matrix view of BLASTN comparisons of pSfr64a vs pRet42a, pRet42d and the chromosome

of NGR234. The ORFs similar to the pSym of CFN42 (pRet42d) include the repABC genes (Figure 2, Table 3). This is congruent with our finding that pSfr64a and pRet42d are incompatible (data not shown). The pSfr64a-pRet42d-shared ORFs are mainly involved in small DNA ligase molecule metabolism (26 ORFs), and carbohydrate transport (13 ORFs). It is noteworthy that, in spite of the fact that pRet42d carries genes engaged in symbiotic functions, none

of these are present in pSfr64a. Within the region similar to pRet42d (ORFs 46 to 110), the colinearity is restricted to small segments, some of them in inverse orientation. (Figure 3, Additional file 1). The repABC genes (pSfr64a ORFs 164 to 166) were adjacent to the transfer region, separated from the other pRet42d genes. It has been amply documented that plasmid pRet42d is subject to frequent genomic rearrangements, due to the presence of reiterations and a high density of insertion sequences [16–20]. R. etli ORFs encoding transposon-related proteins located near to the sites where colinearity is disrupted are indicated in Figure 2 (purple arrows) and Additional File 1. For example, pSfr64a ORFs 122 to 146 are colinear with pRet42a ORFs 139 to 162. The adjacent ORF on pRet42a (ORF 138) encodes a transposon-related protein. It is possible that these sequences are related to the generation of rearrangements, causing the interruptions in colinearity. ORFs 114, 115, 116, 117, 118 and 121 show homology to ORFs encoded in another Rhizobium etli strain; IE4771 [21].

*P < 0 05 and # P < 0 01 vs CS; ★ P < 0 05 and ※< 0 01 vs SE; △ P

*P < 0.05 and # P < 0.01 vs CS; ★ P < 0.05 and ※< 0.01 vs SE; △ P < 0.01 vs ES. Exhaustive QNZ order exercise induces the generation of free radicals which may cause an increase in lipid peroxidation [21]. Measuring MDA is one of the most widely used approaches for evaluating oxidative damage to lipids. Figure 3b illustrates that the plasmic MDA levels of SE or ES-LBP rats significantly decreased compared with that of ES rats (P<0.05 and P< 0.01 respectively). This result indicates that LBPs can attenuate lipid peroxidation. NO is an important vasodiator factor produced by vascular endothelial cells. We found that there was a significant increase in the SE

group. As expected, the NO level was significantly reduced by exhaustive exercise. Further, Epoxomicin mw we found this reduction induced by exhaustive exercise could be reversed by LBPs treatment (Figure 3c). The expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is induced by hyperthermia GW786034 concentration ischemia, oxidative cytokine, muscular stress, glucose deprivation, alterations in calcium and pH [22]. HSP70 is a group of binding proteins with molecular weight of 70 KD, which is significantly increased by high-intensity exercise [23]. To determine the expression of HSP70 after exercise and supplement with LBPs, the plasmic level of HSP70, analyzed by ELISA, showed

an immediate increase after both exercise sessions. As shown in Figure 3d, the HSP70 levels of SE or ES rats were increased. Furthermore, LBPs treatment induced a much higher increase in the ES group (P< 0.01). Expression of eNOS mRNA As the NO level can be up-regulated by LBPs, we therefore examined the effect of LBPs on the expression of eNOS in the aorta after exhaustive exercise. The expression of eNOS mRNA in aorta of four groups was shown Mirabegron in Figure 4. There were significant differences in the eNOS mRNA expression level among different groups. The eNOS expression was increased in both SE and ES-LBP groups (P < 0.01). However, the level of eNOS expression was significantly attenuated in rats after exhaustive exercise (P < 0.01). LBPs treatment significantly

reversed the inhibition of the eNOS expression in rats from ES group (p < 0.01). Figure 4 Effects of LBPs on eNOS mRNA expression in thoracic aorta separated from rats in different groups. Values are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 10). # P<0.01 vs CS; △ P<0.01 vs ES. Discussion The effects of LBPs on vascular vasoreactivity in exhaustive exercise rats were investigated. The major finding of this study was that the contraction induced by NA in thoracic aorta was increased in the presence of exhaustive exercise. Furthermore, supplementation with the LBPs for 4 weeks remarkably improved the vascular reactivity of ES-LBP rats compared to the ES rats (Figure 1). As the arterial compliance is judged by the responsiveness to NA, the results showed that the compliance or distensibility of aorta was increased in LBPs treated animals [24].

This finding does not support the discontinuation of RAS inhibito

This finding does not support the discontinuation of RAS inhibitors prior to exposure to contrast

ASP2215 in vitro media. The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) recommended that RAS inhibitor therapy may be continued, but neither initiating treatment nor enhancing the dose should be considered [17]. Does the use of diuretics increase the risk for developing CIN? Answer: We consider not to use diuretics, especially loop diuretics, which increases the risk for developing CIN. It has been reported that treatment with loop diuretics to prevent CIN increased the incidence of CIN [18]. Diuretics should be discontinued before exposure to radiographic contrast media when clinically feasible [17]. Loop diuretics increase the incidence of CIN even in patients without dehydration. In a study in which patients received hydration with 0.45 % saline, or 0.45 % saline plus loop diuretics, the incidence of CIN was significantly higher in those receiving loop diuretics than in Selleck AG-881 those receiving saline alone

[19]. Recently, two RCTs have reported that the incidence of CIN decreased significantly in patients receiving a combination of aggressive saline infusion and furosemide through devices that balanced high urine output and venous fluid infusion to maintain a urine output of 300 mL/h (see “Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: fluid therapy”) [20, 21]. Does the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Protein kinase N1 increase the risk for developing CIN? Answer: We consider not to use NSAIDs because NSAIDs may increase the risk for developing CIN. Although an observational study showed that the development of CIN is more frequently observed in patients taking NSAIDs [22], there is no direct evidence indicating an association between NSAIDs and CIN. Patients receiving NSAIDs should discontinue them 24 h before, and not renew treatment till 24 h after, contrast radiography [17, 23]. Does the use of iodinated contrast

media increase the risk of lactic acidosis in patients receiving biguanide antihyperglycemic drugs? Answer: Biguanide antihyperglycemic drugs increase the risk of developing lactic acidosis when a transient decrease in kidney function occurs after the use of iodinated contrast media. Appropriate measures, such as a temporary suspension of biguanides before the use of iodinated contrast media, are considered for most patients excluding those who undergo an emergency procedure. Lactic acidosis is one of the most serious selleckchem adverse drug reactions to biguanide antihyperglycemic drugs. Although the incidence is very low, the prognosis of lactic acidosis is poor and mortality is high.

PubMedCrossRef 30 Cheng J, Randall AZ, Sweredoski MJ, Baldi P: S

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R: The architecture of parallel beta-helices and related folds. Prog BAY 1895344 mouse Biophys Mol Biol 2001,77(2):111–175.PubMedCrossRef 35. Kobe B, Kajava AV: When protein folding is simplified to protein coiling: the continuum of solenoid protein structures. Trends Biochem Sci 2000,25(10):509–515.PubMedCrossRef 36. Baumann U: Crystal structure of the 50 kDa metallo protease from Serratia marcescens. J Mol Biol 1994,242(3):244–251.PubMedCrossRef 37. Kim HM, Park BS, Kim JI, Kim SE, Lee J, Oh SC, Enkhbayar P, Matsushima N, Lee H, Yoo OJ, et al.: Crystal structure of the TLR4-MD-2 complex with bound endotoxin antagonist Eritoran. Cell 2007,130(5):906–917.PubMedCrossRef 38. Jin MS, Kim SE, Heo JY, Lee ME, Kim HM, Paik SG, Lee H, Lee JO: Crystal structure of the TLR1-TLR2 heterodimer induced by binding of a tri-acylated lipopeptide. Cell 2007,130(6):1071–1082.PubMedCrossRef 39. Bendtsen JD, Nielsen H, von Heijne G, Brunak click here S: Improved prediction of signal peptides: SignalP 3.0. J Mol Biol 2004,340(4):783–795.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions NM (corresponding author) carried out the molecular genetic

studies, participated in the sequence alignment and drafted the manuscript. HM performed dot plot analysis and radar chart analysis. TM contributed to the data analysis including the sequence alignment. KY conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Escherichia coli typically colonize the mammalian and avian gastrointestinal tract and Olopatadine other mucosal surfaces. While many of these strains are commensal, certain pathogenic strains have the ability to cause severe diseases [1]. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are a group of strains that are implicated in a large range of infections in humans and animals, such as neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infection, intra abdominal infection, pneumonia, osteomyelitis and septicaemia [2–4]. Among the typical extraintestinal infections caused by ExPEC in humans are urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are a major public health concern in developed countries costing healthcare systems billions of dollars annually [5].

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001,98(8):4558–4562 PubMedCrossRef 10 St

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Ferreira Filho PL, Bezerra C: Coccidioidomicose no Estado do Piauí. Anais do I Congresso Bras de Micologia. Porto Alegre 1995. 17. Wanke B, Eulálio KD, Salmito MA, Cruz JRM, Lazera MS: Coccidioidomycosis among armadillo hunters in northeastern Brazil: a new outbreak in the state of Piaui. Annals of 4° ISHAM World Congress, Buenos Aires 2000. 18. Sandhu GS, Kline BC, Stockman L, Roberts GD: Molecular Probes for Diagnosis of Fungal Infections. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995,33(11):2913–2919.PubMed 19. Bezerra CFC, Lima RF, Lazera MS, Wanke B, Borba CM: Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides immitis Cilengitide strains from Culture Colletion of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

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Furthermore,

PbS has a

Furthermore,

PbS has a see more large exciton Bohr radius of about 20 nm, which can lead to extensive quantum size effects. It has been reported that its absorption range can be tuned by adjusting the particle size of the quantum dots [16, 17]. Until now, as one of the most impressive alternative semiconductors, PbS-sensitized solar cells have been studied by many groups [18–22]. In most of the reported works, PbS quantum dots were grown on TiO2 nanotubes [20], ZnO nanorod arrays [21], and TiO2 photoanode with hierarchical pore distribution [22]. Little work has been carried out on large-area single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod array photoanode. Compared to the polycrystal TiO2 nanostructures such as nanotubes [23] and nanoparticles [24], single-crystalline TiO2 nanorods grown directly on transparent conductive oxide electrodes provide a perfect solution by avoiding the particle-to-particle hopping that occurs in polycrystalline films, thereby increasing the photocurrent efficiency. In addition to the potential buy Gemcitabine of improving SCH 900776 order electron transport, they enhance light harvesting by

scattering the incident light. In this paper, narrow bandgap PbS nanoparticles and single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were combined to produce a practical semiconductor-sensitized solar cell. Several sensitizing configurations have been studied, which include the deposition of ‘only PbS’ or ‘only CdS’ and the hybrid system PbS/CdS. Optimized PbS SILAR cycle was obtained, and the uniformly coated CdS layer can effectively minimize the chemical attack of polysulfide electrolytes on PbS layer. Therefore, the performance of sensitized solar cells was stabilized and long lasting. The power conversion efficiency of PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cell showed an increase of approximately 500% compared with that Flucloronide sensitized by only PbS nanoparticles. Methods Growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays by hydrothermal process The TiO2 nanorod arrays were grown directly on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass using the following hydrothermal methods: 50 mL of deionized

water was mixed with 40 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid. After stirring at ambient temperature for 5 min, 400 μL of titanium tetrachloride was added to the mixture. The mixture was injected into a stainless steel autoclave with a Teflon container cartridge. The FTO substrates were ultrasonically cleaned for 10 min in a mixed solution of deionized water, acetone, and 2-propanol with volume ratios of 1:1:1 and were placed at an angle against the Teflon container wall with the conducting side facing down. The hydrothermal synthesis was conducted at 180°C for 2 h.After synthesis, the autoclave was cooled to room temperature under flowing water, and the FTO substrates were taken out, rinsed thoroughly with deionized water, and dried in the open air.